COVID-19 perception and preventive behaviors: A descriptive, comparative study by severity and perceived risk

Isaías Vicente Lugo-González, Margarita Fernández-Vega, Leonardo Reynoso-Erazo, Ana Leticia Becerra-Gálvez, Yuma Yoaly Pérez-Bautista

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2020.039

Abstract


Introduction. The prevention of COVID-19 infections involves the implementation of behaviors to reduce risk and protect health. However, engaging in these behaviors depends on the perception of the threat posed by the illness. Previous research shows the importance of illness perception in the case of communicable and non-communicable diseases, showing that they can change depending on the severity and risk attributed to them.

Objective. Compare the illness perception and the practice of preventive and exposure behavior based on the severity and the risk attributed to COVID-19 at the end of phase 1 and the beginning of phase 2 of the pandemic in Mexico.

Method. By means of a chain sampling, a comparative study was conducted in which an evaluation battery was disseminated through e-mail and social networks.

Results. It was found that evaluating COVID-19 as a serious disease and perceiving oneself as being at risk of contracting it had small and moderate effects on the perception of the consequences of the illness (r = .34; r = .26), emotional impact (r = .32; r = .25), personal control (r = .24) and engagement in preventive (r = .05), and exposure behaviors (r = .07; r = .07).

Discussion and conclusion. This article shows the relevance of the perceptual variables that impact concern due to the social and emotional consequences of COVID-19, as well as those that encourage preventive behaviors and the minimization of exposure behavior.

Keywords


COVID-19; perception; cognition; behavior; risk; self-regulation

Full Text:

HTML PDF EPUB

References


Bashirian, S., Jenabi, E., Khazaei, S., Barati, M., Karimi-Shahanjarini, A., Zareian, S., … Moeini, B. (2020). Factors associated with preventive behaviours of COVID-19 among hospital staff in Iran in 2020: an application of the Protection Motivation Theory. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105(3), 430-433 doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.035

Broadbent, E., Petrie, K., Main, J., & Weinman, J. (2006). The brief illness perception questionnaire. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60(6), 631-637. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.10.020

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Cascella, M., Rajnik, M., Cuomo, A., Dulebohn, S. C., & Di Napoli, R. (2020). Features, evaluation, and treatment coronavirus (COVID-19), Statpearls [internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing.

Cava, M. A., Fay, K. E., Beanlands, H. J., McCay, E. A., & Wignall, R. (2005). Risk perception and compliance with quarantine during the SARS outbreak. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(4), 343-347. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00059.x

Chater, A. M., Arden, M., Armitage, C., Byrne-Davis, L., Chadwick, P., Drury, J., ... Storr, J. (2020). Behavioural science and disease prevention: psychological guidance. British Psychological Society.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Dai, Y., Hu, G., Xiong, H., Qiu, H., & Yuan, X. (2020). Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China. MedRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.03.20030874

Day, T., Park, A., Madras, N., Gumel, A., & Wu, J. (2006). When is quarantine a useful control strategy for emerging infectious diseases? American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(5), 479-485. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj056

Dong, Y., Mo, X., Hu, Y., Qi, X., Jiang, F., Jiang, Z., & Tong, S. (2020). Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China. Pediatrics, e20200702. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0702

Douglas, M., Katikireddi, S. V., Taulbut, M., McKee, M., & McCartney, G. (2020). Mitigating the wider health effects of covid-19 pandemic response. BMJ, 369, m1557. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1557

Epidemic Stats. (2020). Coronavirus Statistics Global. Retrieved from https://epidemic-stats.com/

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS: and sex, drugs and rock’n’roll. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Figueiras, M. J., & Alves, N. C. (2007). Lay perceptions of serious illnesses: An adapted version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for healthy people. Psychology & Health, 22(2), 143-158. doi: 10.1080/14768320600774462

Gandhi, R. T., Lynch, J. B., & del Rio, C. (2020). Mild or Moderate Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp2009249

Garfin, D. R., Silver, R. C., & Holman, E. A. (2020). The novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) outbreak: Amplification of public health consequences by media exposure. Health Psychology, 39(5), 355-357. doi: 10.1037/hea0000875

González Ramírez, L. P., Martínez Arriaga, R. J., Hernández-Gonzalez, M. A., & De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M. (2020). Psychological Distress and Signs of Post-Traumatic Stress in Response to the COVID-19 Health Emergency in a Mexican Sample. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 589-597. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S259563

Hagger, M. S., & Orbell, S. (2005). A confirmatory factor analysis of the revised illness perception questionnaire (IPQ-R) in a cervical screening context. Psychology & Health, 20(2), 161-173. doi: 10.1080/0887044042000334724

Hernández-Sampieri, R., Fernández-Collado, C., & Baptista-Lucio, P. (2014). Metodología de la investigación. México: Mc Graw-Hill.

Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., … Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(6), 547-560. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., … Hu, Z. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common sense representation of illness danger. In Rachman, S. (Ed). Contributions to Medical Psychology, Volume II, (pp. 7-30). UK: Pergamon Press Ltd.

Lugo-González, I. V., Fernández-Vega, M., Pérez-Bautista, Y. Y., & Vega-Valero, C. Z. (2020). Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario Revisado de Percepción de Enfermedad (IPQ-R) en adultos mexicanos con asma. Revista Digital Internacional de Psicología y Ciencia Social, 6(2), 388-413.

Lunn, P. D., Belton, C. A., Lavin, C., McGowan, F. P., Timmons, S., & Robertson, D. A. (2020). Using Behavioral Science to help fight the Coronavirus. Journal of Behavioral Public Administration, 3(1). doi: 10.30636/jbpa.31.147

Méndez, I., Namihira, D., Moreno, L., & Sosa, C. (2001), El protocolo de investigación. Lineamientos para su elaboración y análisis, (2a Ed.). México, DF.: Editorial Trillas.

Molero Jurado, M. M., Herrera-Peco, I., Pérez-Fuentes, M. C., & Gázquez Linares, J. J. (2020). Análisis de la amenaza percibida por la COVID-19 en población española. Atención Primaria, 52(7), 515-516. doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2020.05.001

Mora, P. A., & McAndrew. L. M. (2013). Common-sense model of self-regulation. In Gellman, M. D., & Turner, J. R. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, (pp. 460-467). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9

Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Horne, R., Cameron, L., & Buick, D. (2002). The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology & Health, 17(1), 1-16. doi: 10.1080/08870440290001494

Muñiz, C., & Corduneanu, V. I. (2020). Percepción de riesgo y consumo mediático durante el inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19 en México. Más poder local, (41), 44-47. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7407223

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID]. (2020). Coronaviruses. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronaviruses

Orellana, C. I., & Orellana, L. M. (2020). Predictores de síntomas emocionales durante la cuarentena domiciliar por pandemia de COVID-19 en El Salvador. Actualidades en Psicología, 34(128), 103-120. doi: 10.15517/AP.V34I128.41431

Pacheco-Huergo, V., Viladrich, C., Pujol-Ribera, E., Cabezas-Peña, C., Núñez, M., Roura-Olmeda, P., … del VAL, J. L. (2012). Percepción en enfermedades crónicas: Validación lingüística del Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised y del Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire para la población española. Atención Primaria, 44(5), 280-287. doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2010.11.022

Pedrosa, I., Juarros-Basterretxea, J., Robles-Fernández, A., Basteiro, J., & García-Cueto, E. (2015). Pruebas de bondad de ajuste en distribuciones simétricas ¿qué estadístico utilizar? Universitas Psychologica, 14(1), 15-24. doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.upsy14-1.pbad

Pérez-Bautista, Y. Y., & Lugo-González, I. V. (2017). Aplicación de un instrumento de conducta sexual a través de dos métodos de recolección de datos. Trabajo presentado en el Sexto Seminario Internacional sobre Comportamiento y Aplicaciones (SINCA), 15 noviembre. Tlaxcala, México. Retrieved from http://seminariosinca.com/sinca6.html

Pérez-Fuentes, M. C., Molero Jurado, M. M., Oropesa Ruiz, N. F., Martos Martínez, Á., Simón Márquez, M. M., Herrera-Peco, I., & Gázquez Linares, J. J. (2020). Questionnaire on Perception of Threat from COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(4), 1196-1207. doi: 10.3390/jcm9041196

Pérez-Gay Juárez, F., Reynoso-Alcántara, V., Contreras-Ibáñez, C., Flores González, R., Castro-López, C., Martínez, L. & Grupo COVIDiSTRESS México (2020). Evaluación del Estrés frente a la Pandemia del COVID-19 en población mexicana. Proyecto Internacional COVIDISTRESS. Reporte descriptivo de datos recolectados del 30 de Marzo al 30 de Abril, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.uv.mx/centrodeopinion/files/2020/05/Reporte-Descriptivo-para-OSF2.pdf

Petrie, K., & Weinman, J. (2006). Why illness perceptions matter. Clinical Medicine, 6(6), 536-539. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.6-6-536

Petrie, K., & Weinman, J. (2012). Patients’ perceptions of their illness: The dynamo of volition in health care. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1), 60-65. doi: 10.1177/0963721411429456

Rubin, G. J., Amlôt, R., Page, L., & Wessely, S. (2009). Public perceptions, anxiety, and behaviour change in relation to the swine flu outbreak: cross sectional telephone survey. BMJ, 339, b2651. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2651

Rubin, G. J., Potts, H. W. W., & Michie S. (2010). The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK. Health Technology Assessment, 14(34), 183-266. doi: 10.3310/hta14340-03

Sandín, B., Valiente, R. M., García-Escalera, J., & Chorot, P. (2020). Impacto psicológico de la pandemia de COVID-19: Efectos negativos y positivos en población española asociados al periodo de confinamiento nacional. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 25(1), 1-22. doi: 10.5944/rppc.27569

Secretaría de Salud [SSa]. (2020). Todo sobre el COVID-19. Retrieved from https://coronavirus.gob.mx/

Shacham, M., Hamama-Raz, Y., Kolerman, R., Mijiritsky, O., Ben-Ezra, M., & Mijiritsky, E. (2020). COVID-19 factors and psychological factors associated with elevated psychological distress among dentists and dental hygienists in Israel. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), 2900. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082900

Stirratt, M. J., Dunbar-Jacob, J., Crane, H. M., Simoni, J. M., Czajkowski, S., Hilliard, M. E., … Nilsen, W. J. (2015). Self-report measures of medication adherence behavior: recommendations on optimal use. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 5(4), 470-482. doi: 10.1007/s13142-015-0315-2

Taylor, S. (2019). The Psychology of Pandemics: Preparing for the Next Global Outbreak of Infectious Disease. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Urzúa, A., Vera-Villarroel, P., Caqueo-Urízar, A., & Polanco-Carrasco, R. (2020). La Psicología en la prevención y manejo del COVID-19. Aportes desde la evidencia inicial. Terapia Psicológica, 38(1), 103-118. doi: 10.4067/S0718-48082020000100103

Verity, R., Okell, L. C., Dorigatti, I., Winskill, P., Whittaker, C., Imai, N., … Ferguson, N. (2020). Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 669-677. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051729

West, R., Michie, S., Rubin, G. J., & Amlôt, R. (2020). Applying principles of behaviour change to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 451-459. doi: 10.1038/s41562-020-0887-9

Wu, X., Lau, J. T., Mak, W. W., Gu, J., Mo, P. K., & Wang, X. (2018). How newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men look at HIV/AIDS–validation of the Chinese version of the revised illness perception questionnaire. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(1), 2. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2902-y

Yang, S., & Cho, S. I. (2017). Middle East respiratory syndrome risk perception among students at a university in South Korea, 2015. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(6), e53-e60. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2017.02.013